The purpose of JUDO.
Prof. Kano said that the purpose of Judo is to strengthen body by practicing attack and defense, to complete the personality by training the mind, and finally to devote oneself to society.
The principle of Waza
Waza is based on the fundamental principle of Judo that is, "Maximum Efficient Use of Mind and Body". The theories of Tsukuri and Kake are expressing the principle from Waza's viewpoint.
Tsukuri is made up of Kuzushi which means to destroy your opponent's posture or balance, and "holding yourself ready" to make your attack easier. To actually apply your contemplated technique, when his posture has already been broken by Tsukuri, is called Kake. Tsukuri and Kake can also be called technical principles of Judo.
While you are practicing Tsukuri and Kake, both depend upon the fundamental principle of "Mutual welfare and benefit" and "Maximum efficiency," you can understand and master the principle which can be applied to all phases of human life. You proceed from Waza to Way by practicing Judo.
What is "Seiryoku-Zenyo"?
The words of Jigoro Kano;
"Seiryoku-Zenyo (maximum efficient use of energy)
applies to all types of endeavours, and it is to fully utilise one's spiritual and physical energies to realise an intended purpose.
Seiryoku-Zenyo is the most effective use of the power of the mind and body. In the case of Judo, this is the principle upon which attack and defence are based, and what guides the process of teaching as well. Simply, the most effective use of mind and body may be described as the maximum efficient utilisation of energy. In summary, this can be described as "maximum efficiency".
This idea of the best use of energy is one of the central tenets in Judo, but it is also important for achieving various aims in one's life." *1
"This concept of the best use of energy is the fundamental teaching of Judo. In other words, it is most effectively using one's energy for a good purpose. So, what is 'good'? Assisting in the continued development of one's community can be classified as good, but counteracting such advancement is bad... Ongoing advancement of community and society is achieved through the concepts of 'Sojo-Sojo' (help one another; yield to one another) or 'Jita-Kyoei' (mutual benefit). In this sense, Sojo-Sojo and Jita-Kyoei are also part of the greater good. This is the fundamental wisdom of Judo.
Kata and Randori are possible when this fundamental wisdom is applied to techniques of attack and defence. If directed at improving the body, it becomes a form of physical education; if applied to gaining knowledge, it will become a method of self-improvement; and, if applied to many things in society such as the necessities of life, social interaction, one's duties, and administration, it becomes a way of life...
In this way, Judo today is not simply the practice of fighting in a dojo, but rather it is appropriately recognised as a guiding principle in the myriad facets of human society. The practice of Kata and Randori in the dojo, is no more than the application of Judo principles to combat and physical training... From the study of traditional Jujutsu Kata and Randori, I came to the realisation of this greater meaning. Accordingly, the process of teaching also follows the same path. Furthermore, I recognised the value of teaching Kata and Randori to many people as a fighting art and as a form of physical training. This not only serves the aims of the individual, but by mastery of the fundamental wisdom of Judo, and in turn applying it to many pursuits in life, all people will be able to live their lives in a judicious manner.
This is how one should undertake the study of Judo, however, in actuality there are many people throughout the world living their lives on the basis of Judo principles without knowing that this is the real essence of Judo. If the Judo that is espouse is propagated to society at large, the actions people undertake will become Judo without even thinking about it. I believe that if more people gain an understanding of the guiding principles of Judo, this philosophy will also help guide their lives. Thus, he implored all to make great efforts, and initiate this trend in society." *2
* 1 Kano Jigoro, "The Best Use of Energy", Taisei, Vol.1, No.1, 1922.
* 2 Kano Jigoro, "Jujutsu and Judo, Recognising the Distinction of Judo", Judo, Vol.7, No.2, 1936.
What is "Jita-Kyoei"?
The words of Jigoro Kano;
As long as we coexist, each member of society and the groups organised within must function in harmony and cooperation with the others. Nothing is more important than living prosperously together. If everyone acts with the spirit of mutual cooperation, each person's work benefits not only himself, but also others, and attaining this together will bring mutual happiness. Activities should not be engaged in simply for self-interest. Once started, it is only a matter of course that a person will find goodness in harmony and cooperation upon realising that his efforts will increase the prosperity of all. This great principle of harmony and cooperation is, in other words, the concept of Jita-Kyoei, or mutual prosperity for self and others.
Where should one seek the rationale for acting for the sake of others? Further, if one acts out of concern for his own wellbeing, there will inevitably be a collision of interests with others. Acts for the sake of self-interest will ultimately become a great inconvenience. In this way, sacrificing oneself without any purpose or reasoning runs counter to the greater good of humanity. If one merely enforces his own selfish claims, not only will he become hindered by opposition from others, but such selfishness will lead to self-destruction. When considered in this light, there is no other way forward but Jita-Kyoei in which all people play their part in society to prosper mutually.
For example, if three people join together in travel, one person may wish to go to the mountains, one to the sea, and one may want to stop and rest. The three eventually come to a point where they all wish to separate. Assuming that they wanted to enjoy the benefits of travelling together at the start, they must cooperate and accede to each other's wishes. In truth, there is no choice other than to select a common destination to satisfy everyone.
Looking at the ways of the world, we find that all things great and small interrelate in this manner... If one acts in accordance with his own interests while refusing to recognise the needs of others, this will lead to mutual destruction, and nothing is more disadvantageous or calamitous to society than this...
When we observe at the actual lives of people, it seems that there is a great deal of wasted energy. Even if it appears that people are utilising their energies effectively, it cannot be denied that there is still much room for improvement. We should cease meaningless conflict, and instead abide by the principle of Jita-Kyoei. If we proceed by maximising the efficient use of energy, this will result in the vitality of the country increasing dual-fold. Thus, culture will advance in leaps and bounds, and we will all be enriched and strengthened as a matter of course. Moreover, I believe that if we follow the ideal of Jita-Kyoei, international relations will become more amicable, and it will promote wellbeing for the entire human race.
For this reason, I beseech you all to integrate and embrace all these teachings and proclamations, raise the flag of Seiryoku-Zenyo and Jita-Kyoei, notions that are based on the immovable principles of truth, and move forward together with all the people of the world.*1
* Kano Jigoro, "Why it is necessary to advocate the principles of Seiryoku-Zenyo and Jita-Kyoei", Sakko Vol. 4, No. 12, 1925.